考研英语!教你一招猜词方法!词根词义上下文_网易订阅(2023己更新)

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好多英语单词不认识,教你一招——猜词!

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01

考查本质

在考研当中,阅读题占据非常大的一个比重,因此有一句话叫做:得阅读者得天下。而在阅读当中,词义句意题是比较难的题之一,因此搞定该题也是一个比较重要的事情。但是在我们的阅读题型里面,其实是分了不同的题型的,因此我们做任何题型之前,都要先识别题型。词义句意题问法一般都是“**”means that____,一般在原文内会将会问的单词下划线,因此识别方面还是比较容易。那么该词意思我们怎么去猜测出来的呢?首先,单词都是由词根词缀构成,包括考纲里面也明确规定需要学习140个词根词缀,因此我们是可以利用词根词缀去猜测词义的。但很多时候,除了此方法以外,单词的意义还需要通过上下文语境去猜测。

02

解题技巧

一、利用题干中的息定位

题干中往往直接标出需要猜测的词或句子,将该词或句子定位到原文中去,在文中大多数情况直接下划线标出。

二、利用定位部分的上下文之间的语义关系进行解题

(一)语义一致

1.并列:

(1)并列词以及标点符号:or,too,similarly,and,冒号,单破折号,分号

(2)表示并列的短语:both … and …

, as well as,in parallel with, neither … nor … , either … or …

(3)表示并列的结构:A,not B;相似结构

2.总分

3.论点与论据

试题示例1

(2002年 text 2)As a result, the modern world is increasingly populated by intelligent gizmos whose presence we barely notice but whose universal existence has removed much human labor. Our factories hum to the rhythm of robot assembly arms. Our banking is done at automated teller terminals that thank us with mechanical politeness for the transaction.Our subway trains are controlled by tireless robot-drivers. And thanks to the continual miniaturization of electronics and micro-mechanics, there are already robot systems that can perform some kinds of brain and bone surgery with submillimeter accuracy—far greater precision than highly skilled physicians can achieve with their hands alone.

该选段里gizmos这个单词意思用词根词缀是比较难去猜测的,但是根据上下文,可以发现后文有明显的相似的结构:our factories, our banking, our subway trains,意味着和前文应该是总分关系,保持语义一致。

(二)语义相反

1. 转折:but, however, in fact, nevertheless,unfortunately,

2. 让步:in spite of/despite, while,although/though, even though/if,

3. 对比:on the contrary, on the other hand,while, whereas

试题示例2

(英一2014年 text 1)More apparent reasonableness followed. There will now be a seven-day wait for the job seeker’s allowance. “Those first few days should be spent looking for work, not looking to sign on,” he claimed. “We’re doing these things because we know they help people stay off benefits and help those on benefits get into work faster.” Help? Really? …

22. The phrase “to sign on” (Para. 2) most probably means ______.

[A] to register for an allowance from the government

[B] to accept the government’s restrictions on the allowance

[C] to check on the availability of jobs at the jobcentre

[D] to attend a governmental job-training program

该题looking for work, not looking to sign on,是一个A,not B这样的结构,意味着A,B之间应该语义相反。

(三)其他语义关系

1. 因果关系:because, so

2. 指代:this, that,it, he, she, they

试题示例3

(2010年 text 2)Curbs on business-method claims would be a dramatic about-face, because it was the Federal Circuit itself that introduced such patents with its 1998 decision in the so-called State Street Bank case, approving a patent on a way of pooling mutual-fund assets. That ruling produced an explosion in business-method patent filings, initially by emerging Internet companies trying to stake out exclusive rights to specific types of online transactions…

28. The word “about-face”(Line 1, Para. 3)most probably means ______.

[A] loss of good will

[B] increase of hostility

[C] change of attitude

[D] enhancement of dignity

该选段内有because,意味着前后语义为因果关系,因为所以也应该保持一致

最后,词义句意题主要通过上下文去猜测词义的意思,那就必须要理清各种语义关系以及一些语义关系的标志。

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