Section Ⅰ Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C, D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Today we live in a world where GPS system, digital maps, and other navigation apps are available on our smart phones. (1) of us just walk straight into the woods without a phone. But phones (2) on batteries, and batteries can die faster than we realize. (3) you get lost without a phone or a compass, and you (4) can’t find north, a few tricks to help you navigate (5) to civilization, one of which is to follow the hand.
When you find yourself well (6) a trail, but not in a completely (7) area, you have to answer two questions: Which (8) is downhill, in this particular area? And where is the nearest water source? Humans overwhelmingly live in valleys, and on supplies of fresh water. (9), if you head downhill, and follow any H2O you find, you should (10) see signs of people.
If you’ve explored the area before, keep an eye out for familiar sights–you may be (11) how quickly identifying a distinctive rock or tree can restore your bearing.
Another (12): Climb high and look for signs of human habitation. (13), even in dense forest, you should be able to (14) gaps in the tree line due to roads, train tracks, and other paths people carve (15) the woods. Head toward these (16) to find a way out. At night, scan the horizon for (17) light sources, such as fires and streetlights, then walk toward the glow of light pollution.
(18), assuming you’re lost in an area humans tend to frequent, look for the (19) we leave on the landscape. Trail blazes, tire tracks, and other features can (20) you to civilization.
1. [A] Some [B] Most [C] Few [D] All
2. [A] put [B] take [C] run [D] come
run on battery 表示手机用电池发动，运行。其他选项：put on表示穿上；take on 表示承担；come on 表示快点，开始；前后语义都不通顺，故答案选C。
3. [A] Since [B] If [C] Though [D] Until
4. [A] formally [B] relatively [C] gradually [D] literally
5. [A] back [B] next [C] around [D] away
____ 你在没有电话或指南针的情况下迷路，____找不到北方，我们有一些技巧可以帮助你导航____文明。前文说lost, 此处填入back回到文明之地相互呼应，故正确答案选A。
6. [A] onto [B] off [C] across [D] alone
7. [A] unattractive [B] uncrowded [C] unchanged [D] unfamiliar
8. [A] site [B] point [C] way [D] place
9. [A] So [B] Yet [C] Instead [D] Besides
10. [A] immediately [B] intentionally [C] unexpectedly [D] eventually
11. [A] surprised [B] annoyed [C] frightened [D] confused
12. [A] problem [B] option [C] view [D] result
13. [A] Above all [B] In contrast [C] On average [D] For example
空格前一句提到：“登到高处寻找有人类住所的标志”，关键词为look for signs；空格后提到“在茂密的森林里……树木之间的空隙”，关键词为____gaps. 而look for signs与____gaps 语义相近，signs为抽象名词，gaps为具体名词，因此空格前后表达例证关系或总分关系，故选择for example。
14. [A] bridge [B] avoid [C] spot [D] separate
【解析】本题考查：本题结合13题进行选择，空格所在句是对前面句子的例证，主题一致，因此空格需要填入的单词要和look for 语义接近，故选择spot。
15. [A] from [B] through [C] beyond [D] under
16. [A] posts [B] links [C] shades [D] breaks
空格前有指示代词these，通过语义理解，these____指代上文的“roads，train tracks，and other paths”，并由定语从句修饰，结合语义，因此breaks裂缝最合适。
17. [A] artificial [B] mysterious [C] hidden [D] limited
空格所在句“scan…for ____light sources”,与本段开头“look for sign of human habitation”结构一致，语义相关，空格所填形容词和human意思相近，选择artificial“人造的”。该句后面所列举的两种光源共同特点就是artificial。
18. [A] Finally [B] Consequently [C] Incidentally [D] Generally
本空位于段首，并由逗号隔开，所以考察上下文逻辑。空格后条件状语从句“assuming you”，与上文的“if you”构成顺接递进关系，选项中只有finally表顺接。
19. [A] memories [B] marks [C] notes [D] belongings
空格后的定语从句“we leave on the landscape”,由语义得知此处应该填“标志”，所以选marks。
20. [A] restrict [B] adopt [C] led [D] expose
所缺词语需要与主语“tire blazes, tire tracks and other features”,宾语you, 以及不定式to civilization之间构成完整语义，所以此处填引导最合适。
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C, or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
Financial regulations in Britain have a rather unusual rule on the bosses of big banks.
Starting next year, any guaranteed bonus of top executives could be delayed 10 years if their banks are under investigation for wrongdoing. The main purpose of this “clawback” rule is to hold bankers accountable for harmful risk-taking and to restore public trust in financial institution. Yet officials also hope for a much larger benefit: more long term decision-making not only by banks but also by all corporations, to build a stronger economy for future generations.
“Short- termism” or the desire for quick profits, has worsened in publicly traded companies, says the Bank of England’s top economist. Andrew Haldane. He quotes a giant of classical economies, Alfred Marshall, in describing this financial impatience as acting like “Children who pick the plums out of their pudding to eat them at once” rather than putting them aside to be eaten last.
The average time for holding a stock in both the United States and Britain, he notes, has dropped from seven years to seven months in recent decades. Transient investors, who demand high quarterly profits from companies, can hinder a firm’s efforts to invest in long-term research or to build up customer loyalty. This has been dubbed “quarterly capitalism”.
In addition, new digital technologies have allowed more rapid trading of equities, quicker use of information, and thus shorten attention spans in financial markets. “There seems to be a predominance of short-term thinking at the expense of long-term investing,” said Commissioner Daniel Gallagher of the US Securities and Exchange Commission in speech this week.
In the US, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 has pushed most public companies to defer performance bonuses for senior executives by about a year, slightly helping reduce “short-termism.” In its latest survey of CEO pay, The Wall Street Journal finds that “a substantial part” of executive pay is now tied to performance.
Much more could be done to encourage “long-termism,” such as changes in the tax code and quicker disclosure of stock acquisitions. In France, shareholders who hold onto a company investment for at least two years can sometimes earn more voting rights in a company.
Within companies, the right compensation design can provide incentives for executives to think beyond their own time at the company and on behalf of all stakeholders. Britain’s new rule is a reminder to bankers that society has an interest in their performance, not just for the short term but for the long term.
21. According to Paragraph 1, one motive in imposing the new rule is the ______.
[A] enhance banker’s sense of responsibility
[B] help corporations achieve larger profits
[C] build a new system of financial regulation
[D] guarantee the bonuses of top executives
根据题干关键词“paragraph 1”和“one motive imposing the new rule”回文定位在第一段第三句“The main purpose of this ‘clawback’ rule is to hold bankers accountable for harmful risk-taking and to restore public trust in financial institutions.”(这个规则主要目的是让银行家为不良风险负责以及修复公众对金融机构的信任），对此所给的四个选项，只有A项enhance banks’ sense of responsibility(增加银行的责任感）与原文表述一致，固为正确答案。B项“help corporations achieve profits”(帮助公司获得利润）以及C项“build a new system of financial regulation”(建立新的金融监管体系）在原文中并未提及。D项“guarantee the bonuses of top executives”(保证高管的奖金）与原文“…any guaranteed bonus of top executives could be delayed 10 years …”(高管的任何有保证的奖金会被延迟10年）表述相反，固排除。
22. Alfred Marshall is quoted to indicate______.
[A] the conditions for generating quick profits
[B] governments’ impatience in decision-making
[C] the solid structure of publicly traded companies
[D] “short-termism” in economics activities
根据题干中的“Alfred Marshall”回文定位在第二段最后一句“Alfred Marshall，in describing this financial impatience as acting like …”，其中的“this financial impatience ”指上文提到的“short-termism”，也就是Alfred Marshall描述“短期主义”的行为就像……，由此可知，D项“short-termism” in economic activities（经济活动中的“短期主义”）为正确答案。其他选项在原文中均未提及，故排除。
23. It is argued that the influence of transient investment on public companies can be ______.
根据题干关键词“Transient investment”定位第三段第二句，“Transient investors, can hinder a firm ‘s efforts to invest in long-term research or to build up customer loyalty ”(短暂投资会对公司的长期规划设阻，并影响客户的忠诚度。）A项indirect(间接的），原文未提及，排除；B项adverse（不利的）对应原文“hinder”, 故为正确选项；C项minimal（最小的）和D项temporary（暂时的）原文未提及，故排除。
24. The US and France examples are used to illustrate______.
[A] the obstacles to preventing “short-termism”.
[B] the significance of long-term thinking
[C] the approaches to promoting “long-termism”.
[D] the prevalence of short-term thinking.
根据题干定位到第五、六段，第五段为美国的例子，第六段为法国的例子，（第五段中美国延迟发放才上任一年左右的高管绩效津贴，继而促进缓解“短期主义”盛行的现状；第六段在法国持股两年以上者拥有更大的选票权。）第六段句首承前启后讲到“Much more could be done to encourage ‘long-termism’”促进“长期主义”还有很多做法。A项The obstacles to preventing “short-termism”(预防“短期主义”的阻碍），无中生有，故排除；B项The significance of long-termism thinking (“长期主义”思维意义），无中生有，故排除；C项The approaches to promoting “Long-termism”(促进“长期主义”的方法），与原文一致，故为正确选项；D项The prevalence of short-termism thinking (“长期主义”思维的盛行）为第四段内容，与题干无关，故排除。
25. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?
[A] Failure of Quarterly Capitalism
[B] Patience as a Corporate Virtue
[C] Decisiveness Required of Top Executives
[D] Frustration of Risk-Taking Bankers
根据题干关键词best title 可知这是一道典型的主旨大意题。纵观全文，文章围绕西方国家的金融行业的“短期主义”投资和“长期主义”投资展开。第一段由金融管理者制定的一项限制高管津贴措施引出全文中心话题，促进金融投资的“长期主义”规划；第二段介绍了目前英国银行高管中“短期主义”投资占主流；第三段指出“短期主义”投资的弊端，第四段主要介绍美国现阶段仍然通过技术手段使得“短期主义”投资愈发盛行；五六段举例点明美法两国为促进“短期主义”投资所采取的措施；文章尾段再次呼应首段，点明英国新政提醒银行家们注重“长期主义”投资。B选项中的Patience对应文章中反复出现的主题词short-termisim和 long-termisim, Corporate本身在文章中就多次出现，因此为最佳标题。其余选项A, Failure of Quarterly Capitalism (季度资本主义的失败）；C项Decisiveness Required of Top Executives (高管需要的决断力）；D项Frustration of Risk-taking Bankers (冒险银行家的挫败感）均不能概括全文，故排除。
Grade inflation—the gradual increase in average GPAs (grade-point averages) over the past few decades—is often considered a product of a consumer era in higher education, in which students are treated like customers to be pleased. But another, related force—a policy often buried deep in course catalogs called “grade forgiveness”—is helping raise GPAs.
Grade forgiveness allows students to retake a course in which they received a low grade, and the most recent grade or the highest grade is the only one that counts in calculating a student’s overall GPA.
The use of this little-known practice has accelerated in recent years, as colleges continue to do their utmost to keep students in school (and paying tuition) and improve their graduation rates. When this practice first started decades ago, it was usually limited to freshmen, to give them a second chance to take a class in their first year if they struggled in their transition to college-level courses. But now most colleges save for many selective campuses, allow all undergraduates, and even graduate students, to get their low grades forgiven.
College officials tend to emphasize that the goal of grade forgiveness is less about the grade itself and more about encouraging students to retake courses critical to their degree program and graduation without incurring a big penalty. “Untimely,” said Jack Miner, Ohio State University’s register, “we see students achieve more success because they retake a course and do better in subsequent contents or master the content that allows them to graduate on time.”
That said, there is a way in which grade forgiveness satisfies colleges’ own needs as well. For public institutions, state funds are sometimes tied partly to their success on metrics such as graduation rates and student retention—so better grades can, by boosting figures like those, mean more money. And anything that raises GPAs will likely make students—who, at the end of the day, are paying the bill—feel they’ve gotten a better value for their tuition dollars, which is another big concerns for colleges.
Indeed, grade forgiveness is just another way that universities are responding to consumers’ expectations for a school to turn out graduates who are as qualified as possible—or at least appear to be. On this, students’ and colleges’ incentives seem to be aligned.
26. What is commonly regarded as the cause of grade inflation?
[A] The change of course catalogs
[B] Students’ indifference to GPAs
[C] Colleges’ neglect of GPAs
[D] The influence of consumer culture.
根据题干信息定位至首段第一句，句子主干“Grade inflation…higher education” 即高校成绩膨胀问题通常被认为是消费者至上时代的产物。选项The influence of consumer culture “消费者至上文化的影响”正式该句的同义表达。
27. What was the original purpose of grade forgiveness?
[A] To help freshmen adapt to college learning.
[B] To maintain colleges’ graduation rates.
[C] To prepare graduates for a challenging future.
[D] To increase universities’ income form tuition.
根据题干要求定位到第三段第二句。该句中this practice 对应题干中grade forgiveness，first started 对应题干中的original，而不定式短语to give them a second chance…if they struggled in their transition to college-level courses表目的，对应题干中的purpose，故正确答案为to help freshmen adapt to college learning.
28. According to Paragraph 5, grade forgiveness enable colleges to______.
[A] obtain more financial support
[B] boost their student enrollment
[C] improve their teaching quality
[D] meet local governments’ needs
根据题干关键词Paragraph 5, 以及“grade forgiveness”和 “colleges”定位到第五段第一句话。通过第一句话可以看出，“grade forgiveness”满足了大学的需要，而具体的需要在第二句体现，因此本题真正的答案出现在第二句“For public institution…”. 第二句话意思是“对于大学来说，国家的基金有时候是跟一些因素有关的，比如毕业率和学生在学率，因此好的分数意味着钱。”题干中问题“grade forgiveness”使大学能够……，因此与A选项“获得更多的经济支持”匹配。
29. What does the phrase “to be aligned” (line 5, para. 6) most probably mean?
[A] To counterbalance each other.
[B] To complement each other.
[C] To be identical with each other.
[D] To be contradictory to each other.
根据题目定位到第6段最后一句：On this，students’ and colleges’ incentives seem to be aligned. 重点是找出this指代的内容，根据上文Since students and parents expect a college degree to lead a job, it is the …appear to be. 即“由于学生和家长都希望通过大学学历找到工作，因此符合学校最佳利益的便是尽可能地证明学生的能力—或者说至少看起来如此”。由此可知，学生和学校有着共同的利益目标，所以正确答案为C，学生和学校的倡议是一致的。
30. The author examines the practice of grade forgiveness by
[A] assessing its feasibility.
[B] analyzing the causes behind it.
[C] comparing different views on it.
[D] listing its long-run effects.
根据题干，表面是问作者通过什么论述方式来探讨grade forgiveness 的实践操作，其实是考查全文的主旨写作手法，属于主旨大意考查。第一段第一句Grade inflation…, 以及第二句But another, related force…谈及的都是背后的原因。第五段第一句，That said, there is a way…as well. 也是突出了 grade forgiveness 的原因，所以选择B项analyzing the causes behind it.
This year marks exactly two centuries since the publication of Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Marry Shelley. Even before the invention of the electric light bulb, the author produced a remarkable work of speculative fiction that would foreshadow many ethical questions to be raised by technologies yet to come.
Today the rapid growth of artificial intelligence (AI) raises fundamental questions: “What is intelligence, identify, or consciousness? What makes humans human?”
What is being called artificial general intelligence, machines that would imitate the way humans think, continues to evade scientists. Yet humans remain fascinated by the idea of robots that would look, move, and respond like humans, similar to those recently depicted on popular sci-fi TV series such as “West world” and “Humans”.
Just how people think is still far too complex to be understood, let alone reproduced, says David Eagleman, a Stanford University neuroscientist. “We are just in a situation where there are no good theories explaining what consciousness actually is and how you could ever build a machine to get there.”
But that doesn’t mean crucial ethical issues involving AI aren’t at hand. The coming use of autonomous vehicles, for example, poses thorny ethical questions. Human drivers sometimes must make split-second decisions. Their reactions may be a complex combination of instant reflexes input from past driving experiences, and what their eyes and ears tell them in that moment. AI “vision” today is not nearly as sophisticated as that of humans. And to anticipate every imaginable driving situation is a difficult programming problem.
Whenever decisions are based on masses of data, “you quickly get into a lot of ethical questions,” notes Tan Kiat How, chief executive of a Singapore-based agency that is helping the government develop a voluntary code for the ethical use of AI. Along with Singapore, other governments and mega-corporations are beginning to establish their own guidelines. Britain is setting up a data ethics center. India released its AI ethics strategy this spring.
On June 7 Google pledged not to “design or deploy AI” that would cause “overall harm,” or to develop AI-directed weapons or use AI for surveillance that would violate international norms. It also pledged not to deploy AI whose use would violate international laws or human rights.
While the statement is vague, it represents one starting point. So does the idea that decisions made by AI systems should be explainable, transparent, and fair.
To put it another way: How can we make sure that the thinking of intelligent machines reflects humanity’s highest values? Only then will they be useful servants and not Frankenstein’s out-of-control monster.
31. Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein is mentioned because it
[A] fascinates AI scientists all over the world.
[B] has remained popular for as long as 200 years.
[C] involves some concerns raised by AI today.
[D] has sparked serious ethical controversies.
根据题干定位到原文第一段第一行，引出全文讨论的主题。第一段最后一句，甚至在电灯发明之前，“that would foreshadow many ethical questions to be raised by technologies yet to come”，预示了许多即将到来的技术所带来的伦理道德方面的问题，对应选项C involves some concerns raised by AI today。A项使全世界的人工智能科学家着迷未提及。B项长达两百年间一直很受欢迎也未提及。D项已经引发了严重的伦理争议，已经表述不准确，文中只提及人们现在提出了一些伦理问题。
32. In David Eagleman’s opinion, our current knowledge of consciousness
[A] helps explain artificial intelligence.
[B] can be misleading to robot making.
[C] inspires popular sci-f1 TV series.
[D] is too limited for us to reproduce it.
根据题干定位到原文第四段第二行，“We are just in a situation where there are no good theories explaining what consciousness actually is and how you could ever build a machine to get there.”我们仍没有确凿的理论解释“意识”是什么，而且也不能发明机器实现这一点。因此D too limited for us to reproduce it为正确选项，对于我们来说，我们的能力有限无法再创造它。A项帮助解释人工智能文中未提及。B项对机器人制造来说具有误导性，文中第三段提及人们对制造模仿人类外表、行为的机器人着迷，也未提及到误导性。C项鼓舞了科幻电视节目，文中第三段提及科幻节目，只是为了证明人类对人工智能的着迷，无关现在对于意识的理论知识。
33. The solution to the ethical issues brought by autonomous vehicles
[A] can hardly ever be found.
[B] is still beyond our capacity.
[C] causes little public concern.
[D] has aroused much curiosity.
首先定位到原文第五段第二行，这段一直在讲自动驾驶汽车和人驾驶汽车的区别，最后总结““vision” today is not nearly as sophisticated as that of humans. And to anticipate every imaginable driving situation is a difficult programming problem.”。今天人工智能的这种想象力还不能像人类一样复杂，并且去预测每一个可能的驾驶情形依然是一个很难的编程问题。对应选项B is still beyond our capacity依然超越了我们的能力。A选项几乎难以被发现，原文“But that doesn’t mean crucial ethical issues involving AI aren’t at hand.”这句话表达了伦理问题即将到来，与原文描述不符。C选项几户没有引起公众关注和D选项已经引起了大量的好奇都是未提及项。
34. The author’s attitude toward Google’s pledge is one of
根据题干定位到原文第七段和第八段，题目问的是作者的观点。“While the statement is vague, it represents one starting point.”虽然这个陈述有点模糊，但是它代表了一个开始，从这句话就可以判定出作者对谷歌的承诺是认可的，对应选项A affirmation认可。B选项怀疑，C选项轻蔑都是贬义，与原文不符。D选项尊重，文中并未提及。
35. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?
[A] AI’s Future: In the Hands of Tech Giants
[B] Frankenstein, the Novel Predicting the Age of AI
[C] The Conscience of AI: Complex But Inevitable
[D] AI Shall Be Killers Once Out of Control
本题需要同学们对每段的中心思想进行总结，第一段第二段引出AI话题，第三段讲人类对机器人的着迷，第四段说我们还没有很好的理论做出意识。第五段以智能驾驶人为例，说明目前我们的能力还不足以创造出具有意识的机器人。第六段讲AI带来的伦理道德问题。第七段讲谷歌认为AI有害。第八段作者提出自己对AI的疑问。根据全文中心词consciousness，ethical等可以判断，C The Conscience of AI: Complex But Inevitable人工智能的道德问题：复杂但是不可避免为正确答案。A选项中Tech Giants文中并未提及。B选项，《弗兰肯斯坦》一书只是作为引入的作用。D选项人工智能一旦失控会变成杀手，文中也未提及。
States will be able to force more people to pay sales tax when they make online purchases under a Supreme Court decision Thursday that will leave shoppers with lighter wallets but is a big financial win for states.
The Supreme Court’s opinion Thursday overruled a pair of decades-old decisions that states said cost then billions of dollars in lost revenue annually. The decisions made it more difficult for states to collect sales tax on certain online purchases.
The cases the court overturned said that if a business was shipping a customer’s purchase to a state where the business didn’t have a physical presence such as a warehouse or office, the business didn’t have to collect sales tax for the state. Customers were generally responsible for paying the sales tax to the state themselves if they weren’t charged it, but most didn’t realize they owed it and few paid.
Justice Anthony Kennedy wrote that the previous decisions were flawed. “Each year the physical presence rule becomes further removed from economic reality and results in significant revenue losses to the States,” he wrote in an opinion joined by four other justices. Kennedy wrote that the rule “limited states’ ability to seek long-term prosperity and has prevented market participants from competing on an even playing field.”
The ruling is a victory for big chains with a presence in many states, since they usually collect sales tax on online purchases already. Now, rivals will be charging sales tax where they hadn’t before. Big chains have been collecting sales tax nationwide because they typically have physical stores in whatever state a purchase is being shipped to Amazon. com, with its network of warehouses, also collects sales tax in every state that charges it, though third-party sellers who use the site don’t have to.
Until now, many sellers that have a physical presence in only a single state or a few states have been able to avoid charging sales taxes when they ship to addresses outside those states. Sellers that use eBay and Etsy, which provide platforms for smaller sellers, also haven’t been collecting sales tax nationwide. Under the ruling Thursday, states can pass laws requiring out-of-state sellers to collect the state’s sales tax from customers and send it to the state.
Retail trade groups praised the ruling, saying it levels the playing field for local and online businesses. The losers, said retail analyst Neil Saunders, are online-only retailers, especially smaller ones. Those retailers may face headaches complying with various state sales tax laws. The Small Business & Entrepreneurship Council advocacy group said in a statement, “Small businesses and internet entrepreneurs are not well served at all by this decision.”
36. The Supreme Court decision Thursday will
[A] better business’ relations with states.
[B] put most online business in a dilemma.
[C] make more online shoppers pay sales tax.
[D] forces some states to cut sales tax.
根据题干定位到原文第一段，“States will be able to force more people to pay sales tax when they make online purchases under a Supreme Court decision Thursday…”。当更多的人进行网上购物时，各州将能够迫使他们缴纳销售税。正确答案为C make more online shoppers pay sales tax是原文“they make online purchases”的同义替换，pay sales tax是原词。A选项的业务来往在文中并未提及。B选项将大多数在线业务置于两难的境地原文也并未提及。选项D迫使一些州削减售税，偷换概念。
37. It can be learned from paragraphs 2 and 3 that the overruled decisions
[A] have led to the dominance of e-commerce.
[B] have cost consumers a lot over the years.
[C] were widely criticized by online purchases.
[D] were considered unfavorable by states.
根据题干定位到原文第二段和第三段，“…that states said cost then billions of dollars in lost revenue annually.”。这些州每年损失数十亿美元的收益，以及“The decisions made it more difficult for states to collect sales tax on certain online purchases.”这些决定使得各州更加难以对某些网上购物征收销售税。综合这两句话可以得知，对于州政府来说，都是不利的。正确选项为D were considered unfavorable by states对州来说是不利的。A选项导致了电商的主导，文中并未提及电商的地位。B选项让消费者往年花很多钱，往年不符合文中的发生时间。C选项被网上消费者广泛批评，文中未提及消费者的批评。
38. According to Justice Anthony Kennedy, the physical presence rule has
[A] hindered economic development.
[B] brought prosperity to the country.
[C] harmed fair market competition.
[D] boosted growth in states’ revenue.
根据题干定位到原文第四段第二、三两句，“each year the physical presence rule becomes further removed from economic reality and results in significant revenue losses to the States”。每年，实体存在进一步脱离现实经济，给美国造成重大收入损失。“ Kennedy wrote that the rule “limited states’ ability to seek long-term prosperity and has prevented market participants from competing on an even playing field.”肯尼迪写到，这项规定限制了州寻求长期繁荣的能力，并且阻止了市场参与者在一个公平的竞争环境中竞争。正确选项为C harmed fair market competition阻碍了市场竞争。A选项阻碍了经济发展，文中说的是市场不是经济，偷换概念。B选项带给国家繁荣，文中并未提及。D选项促进了州税收的增长，与原文不符。
39. Who are most likely to welcome the Supreme Court ruling
[A] internet entrepreneurs.
[B] big-chair owners.
[C] third-party sellers.
[D] small retailers.
根据题干定位到原文第五段第一句，“The ruling is a victory for big chains with a presence in many states, since they usually collect sales tax on online purchases already.”。这项裁决是大型连锁企业的胜利，对应正确选项B big-chair owners。选项A是互联网企业家，选项C是第三方卖家，选项D是小零售商，文中均未提及。
40. In dealing with the Supreme Court decision Thursday, the author
[A] gives a factual account of it and discusses its consequences.
[B] describes the long and complicated process of its making.
[C] presents its main points with conflicting views on them.
[D] cites some cases related to it and analyzes their implications.
本题需要同学们对每段的中心思想进行总结。首段引出话题。第二段介绍裁决内容不利于州政府。第三段描述裁决涉及的案例。第四段列举大法官的观点，裁决有待商榷。第五段论述新判决的影响，对大型连锁店有利。第六段谈及新裁决对州和州以外卖家的影响。第七段明确裁决收到零售街的肯定。因此，A gives a factual account of it and discusses its consequences为正确选项，对裁决进行实施描述并且讨论其后果。B选项描述其过程漫长而复杂，文中并未提及。C选项以相互矛盾的观点阐述其要点，作者的观点并不矛盾。D选项引用与之相关的例子并加以分析，文中并未给出明确案例。
The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G and filling them into the numbered boxes. Paragraph C and F have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
A. These tools can help you win every argument–not in the unhelpful sense of beating your opponents but in the better sense of learning about the issues that divide people. Learning why they disagree with us and learning to talk and work together with them. If we readjust our view of arguments–from a verbal fight or tennis game to a reasoned exchange through which we all gain mutual respect, and understanding–then we change the very nature of what it means to “win” an argument.
B. Of course, many discussions are not so successful. Still, we need to be careful not to accuse opponents of bad arguments too quickly. We need to learn how to evaluate them properly. A large part of evaluation is calling out bad argument, but we also need to admit good arguments by opponents and to apply the same critical standards to ourselves. Humanity requires you to recognize weakness in your own arguments and sometimes also to accept reasons on the opposite side.
C. None of these will be easy but you can start even if others refuse to. Next time you state your position, formulate an argument for what you claim and honestly ask yourself whether your argument is any good. Next time you talk with someone who takes a stand, ask them to give you a reason for their view. Spell out their argument fully and charitably. Assess its strength impartially. Raise objections and listen carefully to their replies.
D. Carnegie would be right if arguments were fights, which is how we often think of them. Like physical fights, verbal fights can leave both sides bloodied. Even when you win, you end up no better off. Your prospects would be almost as dismal if arguments were even just competitions-like, say, tennis games. Paris of opponents hit the ball back and forth until one winner emerges from all who entered. Everybody else loses. This kind of thinking is why so many people try to avoid arguments, especially about politics and religion.
E. In his 1936 work How to Win Friends and Influence People, Dale Carnegie wrote: “There is only one way to get the best of an argument and that is to avoid it.” This aversion to arguments is common, but it depends on a mistaken view of arguments that causes profound problems for our personal and social lives and in many ways misses the point of arguing in the first place.
F. These views of arguments also undermine reason. If you see a conversation as a fight or competition, you can win by cheating as long as you don’t get caught. You will be happy to convince people with bad arguments. You can call their views stupid, or joke about how ignorant they are. None of these tricks will help you understand them, their positions or the issues that divide you, but they can help you win in one way.
G. There is a better way to win arguments. Imagine that you favor increasing the minimum wage in our state, and I do not. If you yell: “Yes.” and I yell: “No.” neither of us learns anything. We neither understand nor respect each other, and we have no basis for compromise or cooperation. In contrast, suppose you give a reasonable argument: that full-time workers should not have to live in poverty. Then I counter with another reasonable argument: that a higher minimum wage will force businesses to employ fewer people for less time. Now we can understand each other’s positions and recognize our shared values. since we both care about needy workers.
41. →42. →F→43. →44. →C→45.
【解析】 通过各个选项第一句话排除不能做首段的选项，A项有These tools排除，B项有so successful排除，C固定位置排除，F固定位置排除，G有better way排除，只有D和E可以选择。D项以人名为开头，E项有Carnegie人名并且引用书中观点开头，符合引用开头的特点，所以为首段。
【解析】 第一句中有better way，F选项最后一句有in one way，形成呼应关系，所以G紧跟F其后。
【解析】 后接固定段落C，C的第一句中有none of this，所以前一段最后一句要有列举并列形式，刚好B的最后一句是列举并列形式。
【解析】 A选项中有These tools，所以前一段末尾要有tools之类的事物，并且要有列举。C选项末尾符合要求，所以A紧跟在C之后。
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
It was only after I started to write a weekly column about the medical journals, and began to read scientific papers from beginning to end, that I realized just how bad much of the medical literature frequently was. I came to recognize various signs of a bad paper: the kind of paper that purports to show that people who eat more than one kilo of broccoli a week were 1.17 times more likely than those who eat less to suffer late in life from pernicious anaemia. (46) There is a great deal of this kind of nonsense in the medical journals which, when taken up by broadcasters and the lay press, generates both health scares and short-lived dietary enthusiasms.
Why is so much bad science published? A recent paper, titled ‘The Natural Selection of Bad Science’, published on the Royal Society’s open science website, attempts to answer this intriguing and important question. It says that the problem is not merely that people do bad science, but that our current system of career advancement positively encourages it. What is important is not truth, but publication, which has become almost an end in itself. There has been a kind of inflationary process at work: (47) nowadays anyone applying for a research post has to have published twice the number of papers that would have been required for the same post only 10 years ago. Never mind the quality, then, count the number.
In addition to the pressure to publish, there is a preference in journals for positive rather than negative results. To prove that factor a has no effect whatever on outcome b may be important in the sense that it refutes a hypothesis, but it is not half so captivating as that factor a has some marginally positive statistical association with outcome b. It may be an elementary principle of statistics that association is not causation, but in practice everyone forgets it.
(48) Attempts have been made to curb this kind of tendency, for example, by trying to incorporate some measure of quality as well as quantity into the assessment of an applicant’s papers. This is the famed citation index, that is to say the number of times a paper has been quoted elsewhere in the scientific literature, the assumption being that an important paper will be cited more often than one of small account. (49) This would be reasonable if it were not for the fact that scientists can easily arrange to cite themselves in their future publications, or get associates to do so for them in return for similar favors.
Boiling down an individual’s output to simple metrics, such as number of publications or journal impacts, entails considerable savings in time, energy and ambiguity. Unfortunately, the long-term costs of using simple quantitative metrics to assess researcher merit are likely to be quite great.
(50) If we are serious about ensuring that our science is both meaningful and reproducible, we must ensure that our institutions encourage that kind of science.
Section III Writing
Suppose you are working for the “Aiding Rural Primary Schools” project of your university. Write an email to answer the inquiry from an international student volunteer, specifying details of the project.
You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET.
Do not use your own name at the end of the email. Use “Li Ming” instead. (10 points)
December 22nd, 2018
As a coordinator of the “Aiding Rural Primary Schools” project in a university, I am glad to answer your inquiry and specify some details of the project.
The project is to offer help to kids in the financially disadvantaged village in southwest China. I believe it is beneficial for you to be aware of the following information. First and foremost, you are required to have a good command of English, which can help bring in different language learning experience for local kids. In addition, you need to be independent and self-motivated enough to deal with all sorts of thorny problems. Last but not least, the project is expected to last for two months, you need to get ready for relevant arrangements.
Please accept my heartfelt gratitude for your kindness. If you have any further questions, please feel free to contact me.
Write an essay of 160-200 words on the following picture. In your essay, you should
1) describe the drawing briefly.
2) Interpret its intended meaning, and
3) give your comments.
You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)
The cartoon provides us with a thought-provoking scene: two men are climbing a hill, but one of them desires to give up due to tiredness, while the other one encourages him to keep going.
Undoubtedly, the cartoonist aims at reminding us of the significance of persistence. At the top of the list, we should attach importance to perseverance mainly due to that it can enable us to ameliorate ourselves so we can be qualified for future career promotion, and be ready for meeting the forthcoming challenges. What’s more, we ought to place great value on the role played by persistence in personal growth. Put it another way, in this ever-changing world, perseverance is to personal growth what water is to fish. To sum up, if persistence misses our attention in any possible way, we will suffer a great loss beyond imagination.
Hence, it is vital for us to derive positive implications from the above cartoon. For one thing, we should frequently use it to enlighten the young. For another, we should cultivate the awareness of teenagers that it is very vital to keep going toward our goals. Only by doing so, can we become winner in the face of difficulties.